Steel square rods are a type of steel section widely used in general-purpose and specialised machine building, construction and other industries. They are one of the most frequently used steel profiles in the world.

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Application steel square rods

Steel squares are used for various purposes in construction, from load-bearing steel frames to guarding structures. The machine-building industry uses steel squares to make machine parts and metalware. They are also used to form base frames of machine bodies, and working elements of agricultural and industrial machinery. Material with large square cross-sections is used as a feedstock to make steel sections and shapes.

Steel square rods: product range and classification

Steel square rods are supplied according to the requirements of various international, national and industry regulations, and customers' specifications. Steel square rods can be produced as hot-rolled, heat-treated, normalised rolled, normalised, annealed, quenched and tempered, etc. The most common standards used for making steel squares are shown in the table.


Group of standards

Standard for technical specification

Steel grades in high demand

As-received condition of steel products

European standards

EN 10025-2,

DSTU EN 10025-2

S235JR, S235J0, S235J2, S275JR, S275J0, S275J2, S355JR, S355J0, S355J2, S355K2

Hot-rolled, normalised rolled, and thermomechanically rolled

EN 10025-3,

DSTU EN 10025-3

S275N, S275NL, S355N, S355NL, S420N, S420NL, S460N, S460NL

Normalised rolled and thermomechanically rolled

EN 10025-4,

DSTU EN 10025-4

S355M, S355ML, S420M, S420ML, S460M, S460ML

Thermomechanically rolled

EN 10025-5,

DSTU EN 10025-5

S235J0W, S235J2W, S355J0WP, S355J2WP, S355J0W, S355J2W, S355K2W

Hot-rolled, normalised rolled

EN 10025-6,

DSTU EN 10025-6

S460Q, S460QL, S460QL1, S500Q, S500QL, S500QL1, S550Q, S550QL, S550QL1, S620Q, S620QL, S620QL1, S690Q, S690QL, S690QL1, S890Q, S890QL, S960Q, S960QL

Quenched and tempered

EN ISO 683-1,

EN 10083-2,

DSTU EN 10083-2

С35, С40, С45, С55, С60, С45Е, С45R, C50E, C50R, C55, C55E, C55R, C60E, C60R, 28Mn6, С22Е, С22R, C35, C35E, C35R, C40E, C40R

Hot-rolled, soft annealing, normalised, quenched and tempered

EN ISO 683-2,

EN 10083-3,

DSTU EN 10083-3

38Cr2, 46Cr2, 34Cr4, 34CrS4, 37Cr4, 41Cr4, 41CrS4, 25CrMo4, 25CrMoS4, 34CrMoS4, 42CrMo4, 42CrMoS4, 50CrMo4, 34NiMo6, 30CrNiMo8, 35NiCr6, 36NiCrMo16, 39NiCrMo3, 30NiCrMo16-6, 51CrV4, 20MnB5, 30mnB5, 38MnB5, 27MnCrB5-2, 33MnCrB5-2, 39MnCrB6-2

Hot-rolled, soft annealing, normalised, quenched and tempered

EN ISO 683-3,

EN 10084-2

C10E, C10R, C15E, C15R, C16E, C16R28Cr4, 28CrS4, 20MnCr5, 20MnCrS5, 22CrMoS3-5, 20MoCr3, 20MoCrS3, 20MoCr4, 20MoCrS4, 16NiCr4, 16NiCrS4, 18NiCr5-4, 17CrNi6-6, 15NiCr13, 17NiCrMo6-4, 17NiCrMoS6-4, 20NiCrMoS6-4, 18CrNiMo7-6, 14NiCrMo13-4, 20NiCrMo13-4, 17Cr3, 17CrS3, 16MnCr5, 16MnCrS5, 16MnCrB5, 18CrMo4, 18CrMoS4, 10NiCr5-4, 20NiCrMo2-2, 20NiCrMoS2-2

Hot-rolled, soft annealing, normalised, etc

Ukraine and CIS standards

DSTU 4484,

ГОСТ 535

St0, St1kp, St1ps, St1sp, St2kp, St2ps, St2sp, St3kp, St3ps, St3sp, St4kp, St4ps, St4sp, St5ps, St5sp, St3Gps, St3Gsp, St5Gps, St6ps, St6sp.

Hot-rolled (heat treatment is possible)

DSTU 7809,

GOST 1050

05kp, 08kp, 08ps, 10kp, 10ps, 11kp, 15kp, 15ps, 18kp, 20kp, 20ps, 08, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 58 (55pp), 60

Hot-rolled, annealed, high-tempered, normalised, etc

DSTU 8429,

GOST 14959

65, 70, 75, 80,85, 60G, 65G, 70G, 55S2, 55S2А, 60S2, 60S2А,70S3А, 60S2Г, 50ХG, 50ХGА, 55ХGR, 50ХFА, 55S2GF, 60S2ХА, 60S2ХFА, 65S2VА, 60S2N2А, 70S2ХА

Hot-rolled, annealed, high-tempered

DSTU 7806,

GOST 4543

30G2, 35G2, 40G2, 45G2, 50G2, 20ХGR, 20ХNR, 20ХGNR, 27ХGR, 18Х2N4МА, 38ХМ, 30ХN2МА, 38Х2N2МА, 40Х2N2МА, 38ХN3МА, 18Х2N4МА, 25Х2N4МА, 30ХN2МFА, 38ХV, 30ХN2VА, 38Х2N2VА, 40Х2N2VА, 38ХN3VА, 18Х2N4VА, 25Х2N4VА, 30ХN2VFА, 15Х, 20Х, 30Х, 35Х, 40Х, 45Х, 40ХN, 15ХF, 30ХМА, etc.

Hot-rolled, annealed, high-tempered, normalised, normalised and tempered

DSTU 8541,

GOST 19281

St3sp, 09G2S, 09G2D, 12GS, 16GS, 14ХGS, 17G1S, 09G2, 10G2S1, 14G2, 15GF, 15ХSND, 10ХNDP, 10G2B, 15G2SF, 15GF, 15GFD, 15G2SFD, 14G2АF, 14G2АFD, 16G2АFD, 18G2АFD, 18G2АF

Hot-rolled, normalised, accelerated cooling, etc

Steel squares: production

The main technology used to make steel squares is hot-rolling. Depending on the required cross-section of steel squares, light, medium or heavy-section hot-rolling mills are used to gradually change the shape of the input material (square billet or bloom) to the target shape.

Large steel squares with cross-sections of 100 mm or more make up a special group of this product and are used as feedstock to make steel sections. Steel squares are produced by casting on continuous casting machines (CCMs) or hot-rolling ingots on blooming mills.

Steel rods with small cross-sections (up to 6 mm) are manufactured using cold-rolling or drawing technology.

If certain properties cannot be achieved during the rolling process, steel squares can be subject to various types of heat treatment:

  • Annealing is a process during which metal is heated to above the temperature of phase transformation, held at this temperature and slowly cooled down together with the furnace.

  • Normalising is a type of complete annealing, where rolled steel is heated, soaked and then cooled in the air.

  • Quenching and tempering is a heat treatment process, which includes heating steel to a specified temperature, holding it there, then cooling it suddenly in different media – like water, oil or polymers – at a speed above the critical.


Purchase steel square rods from manufacturer

Metinvest offers steel square rods made from carbon and low-alloy steel grades with a wide range of sizes for construction and machine-building. Steel square rods can be purchased through the global sales network of 38 sales offices in Europe, Asia, Africa and America, as well as 16 metal service centres in Ukraine and authorised dealers.

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